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2nd International Conference on Thyroid and Pregnancy, will be organized around the theme “Thyroid Therapy: Promising the dream of offspring”
Thyroid 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Thyroid 2018
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The thyroid diseases hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are relatively common in pregnancy and important to treat. The thyroid is an organ located in the front of your neck that releases hormones that regulate your metabolism (the way your body uses energy), heart and nervous system, weight, body temperature, and many other processes in the body.
The boundary endoderm in the floor region forms a pocket (marked by the foramen cecum) that separates from the surface and forms the thyroid. Cells originate on the surface of the floor and descend into mesoderm above aortic sac and into the hypopharyngeal eminence as "cords". These cells continue to descend until they reach their final destination in the neck adjacent to the thyroid cartilage.
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies in front of the windpipe (trachea), just below the voice box (larynx). The thyroid gland uses iodine from food to make two thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The thyroid's hormones regulate vital body functions, including Breathing, Heart rate, Central and peripheral nervous systems, Body weight, Muscle strength, Menstrual cycles, Body temperature, Cholesterol levels and Much more.
A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. The term is also used to describe an enlarged thyroid. A goitre is associated with a thyroid that is not functioning properly. Worldwide, the most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency, usually seen in countries that do not use iodized salt. Selenium deficiency is also considered a contributing factor. In countries that use iodized salt, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause. Goitre can also result from cyanide poisoning; this is particularly common in tropical countries where people eat the cyanide-rich cassava root as the staple food.
Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism means that the thyroid gland can’t make enough thyroid hormone to keep the body running normally. People are hypothyroid if they have too little thyroid hormone in the blood.
Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability.
Thyroid hormone plays pivotal roles in growth, differentiation, development and metabolic homeostasis via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by controlling the expression of TR target genes. The transcriptional activity of TRs is modulated by multiple factors including various TR isoforms, diverse thyroid hormone response elements, different heterodimeric partners, coregulators, and the cellular location of TRs. In the present review, we summarize recent advance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action obtained from human subject research, thyroid hormone mimetics application, TR isoform-specific knock-in mouse models, and mitochondrion study with highlights in metabolic regulations.
Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid has important roles to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. Different types of thyroid disorders affect either its structure or function.
Thyroid cancer is a disease that you get when abnormal cells begin to grow in your thyroid gland. Thyroid cancer is an uncommon type of cancer. Most people who have it do very well, because the cancer is usually found early and the treatments work well. After it is treated, thyroid cancer may come back, sometimes many years after treatment. Females are more likely to have thyroid cancer at a ratio of 3:1. Thyroid cancer can occur in any age group, although it is most common after age 30.
Endocrine surgery is a surgical sub-speciality focusing on surgery of the endocrine glands, including the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands, glands of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands.
Surgery of the thyroid gland constitutes the bulk of endocrine surgical procedures worldwide. This may be done for a variety of conditions, ranging from benign multinodular goiter to thyroid cancer.
Thyroid Eye Disease (also known as Graves' ophthalmopathy, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, thyrotoxic exophthalmos, dysthyroid ophthalmopathy, and several other terms) is orbitopathy associated with thyroid dysfunction. The cause of thyroid eye disease is unknown. Thyroid eye disease is typically associated with Graves hyperthyroidism but can also occur with immune-induced hypothyroidism or in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. The course of ophthalmic changes associated with thyroid eye disease does not necessarily correlate with thyroid function.
Diagnostic techniques and procedures encompass all investigations and tests intended to identify the cause of an illness or disorder. They include, for example, laboratory tests for infectious agents, and imaging techniques, such as radiology and ultrasound examination.
Obstetrics and gynecology is the medical specialty that deals with obstetrics and gynecology. Postgraduate training programs for both aspects are usually combined, preparing the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist to be adept at the care of female reproductive organs' health and at the management of pregnancy, although many doctors go on to develop subspecialty interests in one field or the other.
Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century. Planning, making available, and using birth control is called family planning. Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.
Endocrine disease is common in pregnancy.Endocrine function in the developing fetus is initially almost entirely dependent on the mother, with the fetus becoming less reliant on maternal hormones as the fetal glands develop and mature from the second trimester onwards.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) complicates 1% to 4% of pregnancies,1 with congenital heart disease (CHD) being the most common preexisting condition and hypertension the most common acquired condition. The incidence of maternal CVD appears to be growing, likely due to increasing maternal age, cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension,) and lifespan of patients with CHD. Studies suggest that pregnancy-related mortality has also increased over the last several decades, with deaths attributable to CVD increasing over the same time period.
Autoimmune disorders, including Graves disease, are more common among women, particularly pregnant women. The abnormal antibodies produced in autoimmune disorders can cross the placenta and cause problems in the fetus. Pregnancy affects different autoimmune disorders in different ways.
The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. This framework suggests that fetal cells may function both to contribute to maternal somatic maintenance (e.g. wound healing) and to manipulate maternal physiology to enhance resource transmission to offspring (e.g. enhancing milk production).