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2nd International Conference on Thyroid and Pregnancy, will be organized around the theme Thyroid Therapy: Promising the dream of offspring

Thyroid 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Thyroid 2018

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The thyroid diseases hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism are relatively common in pregnancy and important to treat. The thyroid is an organ located in the front of your neck that releases hormones that regulate your metabolism (the way your body uses energy), heart and nervous system, weight, body temperature, and many other processes in the body.

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies in front of the windpipe (trachea), just below the voice box (larynx). The thyroid gland uses iodine from food to make two thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The thyroid's hormones regulate vital body functions, including Breathing, Heart rate, Central and peripheral nervous systems, Body weight, Muscle strength, Menstrual cycles, Body temperature, Cholesterol levels and Much more.

A goitre or goiter is a swelling in the neck resulting from an enlarged thyroid gland. The term is also used to describe an enlarged thyroid. A goitre is associated with a thyroid that is not functioning properly. Worldwide, the most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency, usually seen in countries that do not use iodized salt. Selenium deficiency is also considered a contributing factor. In countries that use iodized salt, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause. Goitre can also result from cyanide poisoning; this is particularly common in tropical countries where people eat the cyanide-rich cassava root as the staple food.

Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body's metabolism significantly, causing sudden weight loss, a rapid or irregular heartbeat, sweating, and nervousness or irritability.

Hypothyroidism is an underactive thyroid gland. Hypothyroidism means that the thyroid gland can’t make enough thyroid hormone to keep the body running normally. People are hypothyroid if they have too little thyroid hormone in the blood.

The boundary endoderm in the floor region forms a pocket (marked by the foramen cecum) that separates from the surface and forms the thyroid. Cells originate on the surface of the floor and descend into mesoderm above aortic sac and into the hypopharyngeal eminence as "cords". These cells continue to descend until they reach their final destination in the neck adjacent to the thyroid cartilage.

Thyroid hormone plays pivotal roles in growth, differentiation, development and metabolic homeostasis via thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) by controlling the expression of TR target genes. The transcriptional activity of TRs is modulated by multiple factors including various TR isoforms, diverse thyroid hormone response elements, different heterodimeric partners, coregulators, and the cellular location of TRs. In the present review, we summarize recent advance in understanding the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action obtained from human subject research, thyroid hormone mimetics application, TR isoform-specific knock-in mouse models, and mitochondrion study with highlights in metabolic regulations. 

Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid has important roles to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. Different types of thyroid disorders affect either its structure or function.

Thyroid cancer is a disease that you get when abnormal cells begin to grow in your thyroid gland. Thyroid cancer is an uncommon type of cancer. Most people who have it do very well, because the cancer is usually found early and the treatments work well. After it is treated, thyroid cancer may come back, sometimes many years after treatment. Females are more likely to have thyroid cancer at a ratio of 3:1. Thyroid cancer can occur in any age group, although it is most common after age 30.

The thyroid gland is an important gland in the endocrine system. Located in the neck, the thyroid gland consists of two lobes which sit to the right and the left of the trachea, or windpipe. The two lobes are connected by a thyroid tissue that runs across the front of the trachea.

Thyroid Eye Disease (also known as Graves' ophthalmopathy, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, thyrotoxic exophthalmos, dysthyroid ophthalmopathy, and several other terms) is orbitopathy associated with thyroid dysfunction. The cause of thyroid eye disease is unknown.  Thyroid eye disease is typically associated with Graves hyperthyroidism but can also occur with immune-induced hypothyroidism or in the absence of thyroid dysfunction. The course of ophthalmic changes associated with thyroid eye disease does not necessarily correlate with thyroid function. 

Diagnostic techniques and procedures encompass all investigations and tests intended to identify the cause of an illness or disorder. They include, for example, laboratory tests for infectious agents, and imaging techniques, such as radiology and ultrasound examination.

Obstetrics and gynecology is the medical specialty that deals with obstetrics and gynecology. Postgraduate training programs for both aspects are usually combined, preparing the practicing obstetrician-gynecologist to be adept at the care of female reproductive organs' health and at the management of pregnancy, although many doctors go on to develop subspecialty interests in one field or the other.

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century. Planning, making available, and using birth control is called family planning. Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable. Reproductive health implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safer sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so. One interpretation of this implies that men and women ought to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of birth control; also access to appropriate health care services of sexual, reproductive medicine and implementation of health education programs to stress the importance of women to go safely through pregnancy and childbirth could provide couples with the best chance of having a healthy infant.

“Infertility” is a term that describes when a couple is unable to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of having regular, unprotected sex, or after 6 months if the woman is older than 35 years of age.

The term “infertility” also is used to describe the condition of women who are able to get pregnant but unable to carry a pregnancy to term because of miscarriage, recurrent pregnancy loss, stillbirth, or other problems.

Recurrent pregnancy loss is considered distinct from infertility. Although there may be some overlap, the causes of pregnancy loss, recurrent pregnancy loss, and stillbirth are often different from the causes of infertility.

Pregnancy is a normal and healthy state that many women aspire to at some point in their lives. However, pregnancy can make women more susceptible to certain infections. Pregnancy may also make these infections more severe. Even mild infections can lead to serious illness in pregnant women.

Some infections that occur during pregnancy primarily pose a risk to the mother. Other infections can be transmitted to the baby through the placenta or during birth. When this occurs, the baby is at risk for health complications as well.

Some infections that develop during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, preterm labor, or birth defects. They may even be life-threatening for the mother. To complicate matters, the medications used to treat infections can cause serious side effects, especially for the baby. It’s important to try to prevent infections in pregnancy to minimize risks to both mother and baby.

Endocrine disease is common in pregnancy.Endocrine function in the developing fetus is initially almost entirely dependent on the mother, with the fetus becoming less reliant on maternal hormones as the fetal glands develop and mature from the second trimester onwards.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) complicates 1% to 4% of pregnancies,1 with congenital heart disease (CHD) being the most common preexisting condition and hypertension the most common acquired condition. The incidence of maternal CVD appears to be growing, likely due to increasing maternal age, cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension,) and lifespan of patients with CHD. Studies suggest that pregnancy-related mortality has also increased over the last several decades, with deaths attributable to CVD increasing over the same time period.

Having certain disorders, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, can increase the risk of problems during pregnancy. If women who have such a disorder wish to become pregnant, they should first talk with a doctor and try to get in the best physical condition possible before they become pregnant. After such women become pregnant, they may need special care, often from an interdisciplinary team. The team may include an obstetrician (who may also be a specialist in care of the disorder during pregnancy), a specialist in the disorder, and other health care practitioners (such as nutritionists).

 

Autoimmune disorders, including Graves disease, are more common among women, particularly pregnant women. The abnormal antibodies produced in autoimmune disorders can cross the placenta and cause problems in the fetus. Pregnancy affects different autoimmune disorders in different ways.

The presence of fetal cells has been associated with both positive and negative effects on maternal health. These paradoxical effects may be due to the fact that maternal and offspring fitness interests are aligned in certain domains and conflicting in others, which may have led to the evolution of fetal microchimeric phenotypes that can manipulate maternal tissues. We use cooperation and conflict theory to generate testable predictions about domains in which fetal microchimerism may enhance maternal health and those in which it may be detrimental. This framework suggests that fetal cells may function both to contribute to maternal somatic maintenance (e.g. wound healing) and to manipulate maternal physiology to enhance resource transmission to offspring (e.g. enhancing milk production).

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are infections that can be passed on during sex, and in some cases can be passed from mother to child. If left untreated, STIs can cause serious problems for both mother and child. Numerous sexually transmitted diseases--syphilis, gonococcal infections, group B beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection, chlamydial infections, mycoplasmas, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus infections, hepatitis B viral infections, fungal infection, trichomonas vaginalis, condylomata acuminata, and scabies--are of concern when they occur during pregnancy, either because of their potential adverse effects on the fetus or the chance of a modified reaction in the pregnant woman.

 

The incidence of surgical disease is the same in pregnant and nonpregnant patients. A total of 1.5–2% of all pregnancies undergo nonobstetric surgical intervention. The most common surgical disorders in pregnancy are appendicitis, cholecystitis, intestinal obstruction, adnexal torsion, trauma, and cervical and breast disease. Surgical disorders can be either incidental to or directly related to the pregnancy. Diagnostic evaluation requires gentle, sensitive elicitation of physical signs, at times without sophisticated diagnostic aids that involve risk to the developing fetus. Good judgment regarding the timing, methods, and extent of treatment is important. In the absence of peritonitis, visceral perforation, or hemorrhage, surgical disorders during gestation generally have little effect on placental function and fetal development.

 

Pregnancy can be a time of excitement and anticipation but some women may experience complications such as bleeding during their pregnancy or high blood pressure which can be an indication of pre-eclampsia. Other complications may include itching or severe vomiting during pregnancy.

 

Ayurveda considers that any disease in a pregnant woman should be treated with mild drugs that are compatible and safe for the fetus. Panchakarma (detoxifying procedures) should be avoided during pregnancy, apart from basti (enema) and pichu (tampon) in the eighth and ninth months of pregnancy. According to Ayurveda medication should be avoided during the first three months of pregnancy if possible. Symptomatic treatment with very mild herbs and a suitable diet should be tried and only if the symptoms are severe the disease should be treated with ayurvedic remedies.

 

Medication management therapy – or MTM – is a treatment system used by doctors and pharmacists to ensure that patients are receiving optimal therapeutic outcomes for the prescription medications that they may be taking. Medication therapy management includes a broad range of professional activities, including but not limited to performing patient assessment and/or a comprehensive medication review, formulating a medication treatment plan, monitoring efficacy and safety of medication therapy, enhancing medication adherence through patient empowerment and education, and documenting and communicating MTM services to prescribers in order to maintain comprehensive patient care.

 

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy.

Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids from protein and essential fatty acids from fat-containing food, also food energy in the form of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life, health and longevity.

A medical case report is generally considered a type of anecdotal evidence. Given their intrinsic methodological limitations, including lack of statistical sampling, case reports are placed at the foot of the hierarchy of clinical evidence, together with case series for the clinical reviews. Nevertheless, case reports do have genuinely useful roles in medical research and evidence-based medicine. In particular, they have facilitated recognition of new diseases like Thyroid, Pregnancy and adverse effects of treatments. Case reports have role diseases. They can also help understand the clinical spectrum of rare diseases, as well as unusual presentations of common diseases. They can help generate study hypotheses, including plausible mechanisms. Case reports may also have a role to play in guiding the personalization of disorders and treatments in clinical practice.